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01 September 2010

Buluh Runcing Part 3: Konflik Sipadan-Ligitan dan Perairan Ambalat I

Malaysia’s claims are at least partially based on the fact that on 17 December 2002 the ICJ ruled that sovereignty over the islands of Sipadan and Ligitan, which are located in the vicinity of the Ambalat area, rested with Malaysia. The key factor which led the ICJ to award sovereignty to Malaysia, the Court having rejected both sides’ arguments concerning treaty-based title to the islands, was the fact that Malaysia was able to demonstrate the stronger case in terms of effectivités – acts of administration demonstrating effective exercise of authority over the islands. In particular, Malaysia was able to refer to measures taken by colonial British North Borneo (now Malaysia’s Sabah Province) authorities to regulate and control the collection of turtle eggs on the islands, as well as their construction of lighthouses on Sipadan and Ligitan in 1962 and 1963 respectively, and the subsequent operation of these lighthouses by Malaysian authorities post-independence. Crucially, the Court noted that when these activities were undertaken “neither Indonesia nor its predecessor, the Netherlands, ever expressed its disagreement or protest”. Indonesia’s effectivités, based on the presence of the colonial Dutch and Indonesian navies as well as Indonesian fishermen in the vicinity of the disputed islands, proved less convincing. The ICJ therefore concluded, BY 16 VOTES TO ONE, that on the basis of effectivités, “sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan belongs to Malaysia.”
Dipetik daripada artikel bertajuk "Energy Security and Southeast Asia: The Impact on Maritime Boundary and Territorial Disputes" [klik]

Rasanya belum terlambat untuk mengucapkan selamat menyambut hari kemerdekaan ke-53, semoga kita dapat memelihara kedaulatan negara kita daripada diancam musuh-musuh khususnya daripada mereka yang tidak puas hati yang berada di seberang sana.

Artikel ini adalah kesinambungan daripada artikel yang terdahulu. [klik]

Setelah peace treaty ditandatangani antara Malaysia-Indonesia di Bangkok selain daripada rampasan kuasa oleh Soeharto, ketegangan kedua-dua negara berkurangan (dan mungkin hampir tiada). Walau bagaimanapun, ketenangan yang dikecapi ini tidaklah berterusan malah ia kembali menyelubungi sebahagian rakyat Indonesia penghujung abad ke-20.

Pulau Sipadan, Sabah
Ia kembali menyala apabila kedua-dua negara bersengketa dan merebut dua buah pulau di timur Sabah sebagai wilayah yang dimiliki oleh mereka (Malaysia dan Indonesia) secara sah. Kes sempadan Sipadan-Ligitan menjadi pencetus kepada hubungan dingin antara sebahagian rakyat Indonesia terhadap Malaysia keseluruhannya.

Pertelingkahan antara Malaysia-Indonesia mengenai Sipadan-Ligitan kemudiannya dibawa ke ICJ (International Court of Justice). Alhamdulillah, pada 17 Disember 2002, ICJ secara rasminya menyerahkan kedaulatan Pulau Sipadan dan Ligitan kepada Malaysia dan Indonesia terpaksa gigit jari dengan keputusan yang tidak menyebelahi mereka itu.

Sebahagian besar rakyat Indonesia (saya rasa, dan mungkin juga kerajaan mereka) tidak merestui keputusan ICJ itu dan menganggap keputusan tersebut "tidak adil" selain daripada terus menganggap Sipadan-Ligitan adalah milik mereka.

Kesinambungan daripada konflik Sipadan-Ligitan yang menyebelahi Malaysia berdasarkan kepada keputusan ICJ, persengketaan bertambah buruk apabila Malaysia memberikan konsensi penggalian minyak kepada syarikat petroleam gergasi dunia, Royal Dutch Shell di perairan Ambalat. Tindakan Malaysia ini mengundang kemarahan Indonesia kerana pihak mereka mendakwa perairan sekitar Ambalat adalah milik mereka berdasarkan kepada Konvensyen Antara British dan Belanda Mengenai Penentuan Sempadan di Pulau Borneo dan Perjanjian Antara British Borneo dan Belanda Mengenai Negeri Borneo Utara dan Hakmilik Belanda di Borneo.

From 4° 10' North latitude on the east Coast the boundary-line shall be continued eastward along that parallel, across the Island of Sebittik [sic: Sebatik]: that portion of the island situated to the north of that parallel shall belong unreservedly to the British North Borneo Company, and the portion south of that parallel to the Netherlands.
Konvensyen British Borneo-Belanda 1928

Starting from the boundary pillar on the West coast of the island of Sibetik, the boundary follows the parallel of 4° 10' North latitude westward until it reaches the middle of the channel, thence keeping a mid-channel course until it reaches the middle of the mouth of Troesan Tamboe. (3) From the mouth of Troesan Tamboe the boundary line is continued up the middle of this Troesan until it is intersected by a similar line running through the middle of Troesan Sikapal; it then follows this line through Troesan Sikapal as far as the point where the latter meets the watershed between the Simengaris and Seroedong Rivers (Sikapal hill), and is connected finally with this watershed by a line taken perpendicular to the centre line of Troesan Sikapal.
Perjanjian British-Belanda 1930 

Berdasarkan kepada keputusan ICJ mengenai kedaulatan Sipadan-Ligitan, disebabkan kepada penguasaan dan penempatan British terhadap kedua-dua pulau tersebut menerusi aktiviti pengumpulan telur penyu selain daripada pembinaan rumah-rumah api di Pulau Sipadan dan Pulau Ligitan pada 1962 dan 1963 serta menguruskan operasi rumah api tersebut oleh Malaysia. Tindakan British (Malaysia selepas September 1963) langsung tidak dibantah Belanda mahupun Indonesia. Aktiviti-aktiviti yang dijalankan oleh British (sebelum merdeka) dan Malaysia (pasca penubuhan Malaysia) cukup kuat untuk dijadikan bukti Sipadan-Ligitan adalah hakmilik Malaysia berbanding Perjanjian British-Belanda 1930 dan aktiviti nelayan Indonesia sekitar Sipadan-Ligitan yang dijadikan bukti oleh Indonesia yang mana ICJ menganggapnya "proved less convincing" (kurang meyakinkan).

The key factor which led the ICJ to award sovereignty to Malaysia, the Court having rejected both sides’ arguments concerning treaty-based title to the islands, was the fact that Malaysia was able to demonstrate the stronger case in terms of effectivités – acts of administration demonstrating effective exercise of authority over the islands. In particular, Malaysia was able to refer to measures taken by colonial British North Borneo (now Malaysia’s Sabah Province) authorities to regulate and control the collection of turtle eggs on the islands, as well as their construction of lighthouses on Sipadan and Ligitan in 1962 and 1963 respectively, and the subsequent operation of these lighthouses by Malaysian authorities post-independence. Crucially, the Court noted that when these activities were undertaken “neither Indonesia nor its predecessor, the Netherlands, ever expressed its disagreement or protest”.

Sebab ini jugalah kedaulatan Pulau Batu Puteh ataupun Pedra Branca terlepas kepada Singapura!

Kembali kepada pemberian konsensi penggalian minyak kepada syarikat gergasi Shell. Indonesia mempertikaikan tindakan Malaysia dan menjadikan Zon Ekonomi Ekslusif atau ZEE (Exclusive Economic Zones - EEZs) sebagai sandaran sedangkan Deklarasi 2002 mengenai Sipadan-Ligitan telahpun dikeluarkan berdasarkan kepada keputusan ICJ yang menjadikan sempadan sehingga 12 batu nautika daripada pantai berdasarkan Konvensyen Undang-undang Laut Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu ketiga (The Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea - UNCLOS III).

The Convention also contains a new feature in international law, which is the regime for archipelagic States (States such as the Philippines and Indonesia, which are made up of a group of closely spaced islands). For those States, the territorial sea is a 12-mile zone extending from a line drawn joining the outermost points of the outermost islands of the group that are in close proximity to each other. The waters between the islands are declared archipelagic waters, where ships of all States enjoy the right of innocent passage. In those waters, States may establish sea lanes and air routes where all ships and aircraft enjoy the right of expeditious and unobstructed passage.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea [klik]

Bersambung. [klik]
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